Wednesday, 28 November 2012

OUGD401 - Lecture notes: Typography

Typography - Richard Miles

A history of type...
  • History of type
  • Six main classifications of type
  • Famous typefaces and their related connotations
  • Metalinguistic function of typography
  • Kerning and x-heights
Calibri, Gill Sans, Curls MT, Comic Sans

Decisions effect the connotations of what is being said

Visual Communication and verbal communication - Typography exists at the interception of the two

Typography at the interception of writing and interception of verbal and visual there is a form of meta-communication, paralinguistics and kinesics.

Language is an organised way of communication

A word has a linguistic function and communicates something in a language but typography can also effect the way we read that language, the speed we read the language and the rhythm we read the language.

Do I look fat in this paragraph?

Type Classifications
  • Humanist
  • Old style
  • Transitional
  • Modern
  • Slab serif (Egyptian
  • Sans serif
Late age of print
'Late age of print' began around 1450
The Gutenberg printing press was invented in 1450
For the first time the print of word is widely available to a mass audience
The previous 400 years nothing happened
A lot of our alphabet comes from the Romans
The reason we have serifs is because letters were originally chiseled out of stone
One of the first typefaces was called Gutenberg Gothic Script 1450
Based on medieval script handwriting
Humanist typefaces were supposed to reflect handwriting but they had a greater kind of elegance
The painter and the designer Geofroy Tory believed that the proportions of the alphabet should reflect the ideal human form. He wrote, "the cross stroke covers the man's organ of generation, to signify that Modesty and Chastity are required before else, in those who seek..."
Human typefaces have been redesigned to suit contemporary tastes
15th century - Venice
All of the fonts that were produced we start to call old style
Further move away from script
Move towards rational logic
Slanted ascender has gone horizontal
A lot of the fonts were based on the old style fonts from Venice
  • Palatino
  • Garamond
  • Perpetua
  • Goudy Old Style
In the mid 18th century
A really famous typographer called Wilian Caslon
The difference between Baskerville and Caslon's - The ultra thiness of Baskerville's serif
A gradual move away from Humanist to Transitional with Old Style inbetween as a development
Modern Typefaces (Didones)
  • Attributed to Firmin Didot 1974 (French typographer)
  • The most well known is called Bodoni
  • Didone - No attempt to look like handwriting
  • Didone is often used in fashion - Style, sophistication and glamour
  • It has become the accepted language of fashion
Slab Serif/Egyptian - 1800's
  • It doesn't actually look like the Egyptian type
  • Designed to be fonts that can be plastered on billboards
  • They are gauche
  • They are brash
  • Market traiders
  • Fat Face is an inflated, hyper-cold type style developed in the early nineteeth century. It is Bedoni on steroids
  • Modernist sans-serif typefaces aim to be a neutral conveyer of meaning. International, design a language for all, modern, progressive
Helvetica bold - Modernist font you can't go wrong with or could be perceived as bland
David Carson - Grunge type
Blackletter typeface called Bastard is to be used by corporate wankers

Monday, 26 November 2012

OUGD405 - Design Process: Research

Today we were put into research groups. Each group was given a different word and our word was 'deception'. We worked together to firstly write a list of different words we could research.

The list is as follows:

  • Misleading
  • Lies
  • Fraud
  • False
  • Unfaithful
  • Advertising
  • Politicians
  • Entrap
  • Conspiracy
  • Small print
  • Magicians
  • Claire Voyant
  • Astrologist
  • Mediums
  • Banks
  • Love affairs
  • Chinese whispers
We then had to write on a piece of paper as many different ideas which could be researched as possible:

From this list we then decided who was going to research what. I was left with the option to research mediums/claire voyant. At first I thought this would be really interesting to research, however once we were told that we had to create three research boards, one for primary research, one for secondary research and one for direction of research, I thought it would be quite limited. This is because the imagery I would find would be based on images of ghosts and photographs of famous mediums, and I think I would soon lose interest. Therefore, we had a discussion as a group, and one member, James, came up with the idea of self-deception. I think this idea is much more appropriate as I will be able to collect a lot of strong imagery rather than my research being solely based on text and facts.

I then decided to write down some of my initial ideas and made a list of possibilities which I could look into:

  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Bulimia
  • Plastic/cosmetic surgery
  • Drug addiction
  • Alcoholism
  • Religion (when people believe they have been sent to Earth for a particular purpose)
Now that I know what I need to research I am going to categorise my work to make it easy for me to collect relevant information and to fully prepare myself to enable me to produce my work on my Design Practice blog.

I am going to complete the following...

Primary research
  • Questionnaires relating to each subject matter (research to see whether there are any existing available online)
Secondary research
  • Imagery relating to each subject matter
  • Facts about each subject matter
  • Philosophical beliefs about self-deception on the internet
  • Look on people's blogs, websites or chat rooms relating to self-deception
  • Any videos
Direction of research
  • I will then choose one area to research further. For example if I chose to look at plastic surgery I could look at the secondary health effects which people suffer from under particular circumstances, if it goes wrong.
Primary research
Anorexia Nervosa and bulimia

For primary research I have found questionnaires online to see what sort of questions were asked. I will take inspiration from these when I design my own questionnaire.

Plastic/cosmetic surgery

This information was taken from the NHS website. I was interested to read about the different reasons as to why people have cosmetic surgery to discover whether I am right in saying that a lot of the time people deceive themselves into thinking that they need to have it to alter their appearance.

I posted my own question on Facebook to the rest of my Graphic Design course to see what they said in response to my question. I found this interesting but also feel the need to ask a wider variety of people when producing my boards.

Drug addiction and alcoholism

Drug addiction and alcoholism is another form of self-deception as people believe that they are better individuals.

Secondary research
'Self-deception is the process or fact of misleading ourselves to accept claims about ourselves as true or valid when they are false or invalid. Self-deception, in short, is a way we justify false beliefs about ourselves to ourselves.'

Anorexia Nervosa

Emma O'Neil has recovered from anorexia (L) and weighed less than three stone (R)




Pinned Image

Pinned Image

Plastic/cosmetic surgery
Pinned Image

Pinned Image

Pinned Image


Why plastic surgery is necessary

Plastic surgery can be used to correct defects that are present from birth or to repair skin and tissue damage caused by disease, illness or injury.
There are many different situations where plastic surgery may be needed, and a variety of surgical procedures can be used.

Conditions present from birth

Plastic surgery can be used to correct defects that are present at birth (congenital), including:
  • haemangiomas – small blood vessels collect together to produce a raised, red mark on the skin that's commonly known as a ‘naevus’
  • birthmarks and port wine stains – these are caused by malformations of capillaries, veins and arteries
  • hypospadias – the opening of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis) is on the underside of the penis
  • craniofacial defects – abnormalities of the head and face that may affect the eyes, ears or nose
  • cleft lip and palate – a birth defect that affects the top lip and the roof of the mouth (palate)

Conditions that develop later in life

Plastic surgery can also be used to repair and reconstruct damaged tissue caused by illness, conditions that develop later in life (acquired), or injury. For example, it may be used for:
  • breast reconstruction – following breast cancer, the breast can be reconstructed using either man-made (prosthetic) material or tissue from another part of the body
  • chest wall abnormalities – surgery may be used in cases where the breast bone is concave (bowed inward), or where the breast bone is convex (bowed outwards)
  • hand and upper limb – plastic surgery may be required in some cases where the joints of the fingers, shoulders, elbows or wrists are damaged by conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
  • lower limb injuries, including fractures and soft tissue injuries to the legs, ankles and feet
  • facial injuries – for example, severe lacerations caused by an animal bite
  • burns – people with extensive burns (more than 15% of the body’s surface for adults and more than 10% for children) may require plastic surgery

Maintaining tissue structure

Your body shape is determined by the size and shape of your skeleton, the amount of muscle that you have and the amount and distribution of the layer of fat that sits immediately under your skin (subcutaneous fat).
As well as subcutaneous fat, a layer of soft tissue, known as the superficial fascia, surrounds the whole of your body. The superficial fascia is part of the connective tissue that helps maintain your body’s structure by supporting the bones, muscles and organs.
If your soft tissues are damaged through illness or injury, it can have a significant impact on the structure of the tissues, as well as on their ability to function properly. For example, the superficial fascia helps to prevent infection by providing a second barrier after the skin. If the skin and fascia are damaged, it will make you more vulnerable to infection.

Skin loss

Plastic surgery is often used to treat skin damage after surgical procedures, burns or injuries that cause disfigurement.
As well as reconstructing areas of damaged tissue, plastic surgery can be used to repair damaged skin or replace lost skin. To achieve this, a number of different skin transfer techniques can be used. Skin grafts are the most commonly used procedure.


As well as repairing the physical damage caused by injury and illness, reconstructive surgery can also improve a person’s confidence, self-esteem and overall quality of life.

Direction of research

Plastic surgery

Complications of plastic surgery

As with any type of surgery, plastic surgery has associated risks and complications. The degree of risk depends on whether the surgery is in a small or large area, the level of experience of the surgeon and the overall health of the person having the procedure.
Contact your surgeon, GP or healthcare team immediately if you have any concerns regarding your recovery from a surgical procedure, such as pain, swelling, discharge or any other unexpected side effects.
Below are some common complications that can occur following cleft lip and palate surgery, breast reconstruction and skin grafts.

Cleft lip and palate

A cleft lip and palate can have a psychological impact on a young child, particularly as they get older and start to mix with other children. As treatment for the problem can be ongoing and last for many years, you need to be realistic about the possible outcomes of treatment and ensure that you have a supportive and positive attitude towards your child.
In the long-term, most children who have a cleft lip and palate grow up into well-adjusted adults, and there's no evidence that they experience any more psychological problems than the general population.
Children with clefts have an increased risk of developing tooth decay. This is partly due to abnormalities in their tooth development that make it difficult for them to keep their teeth properly clean. As a result, children with clefts should have a dental check-up at least once every six months.

Breast reconstruction

Over the last decade, breast reconstruction surgery has improved significantly. However, a number of problems may occur immediately after the procedure or some time afterwards.

Immediate problems

Problems that can occur immediately after breast reconstruction surgery include:

  • infection
  • fluid under the wound
  • flap failure
  • pain and discomfort
If the area around the breast implant becomes infected, you'll need to have antibiotics. The infection should clear up in around a week. However, if infection reoccurs, you may need to have the implant removed, and you'll have to wait for about three months before having another one fitted.
After surgery, it's normal for fluid to collect in the area. Fluid can usually be drained away through a tube. However, any excess fluid build-up may need to be removed using a needle and syringe. If fluid keeps building up, you may need to have your implant temporarily removed.
Sometimes, the flap of tissue that's used to make a new breast can die. This is less likely to happen if the flap is connected to its original blood supply (a pedicled flap).
There's a small chance (3-5%) that the flap will fail completely and die. If this happens, you'll need to have surgery to remove it. You'll then have to wait six to 12 months before having reconstructive surgery again.
After breast surgery, you may feel some pain and discomfort. If it's severe, you may need a painkilling injection for the first 24 hours after the operation. Less severe pain can be treated with painkilling tablets.

Long-term problems

Long-term problems that can develop after breast reconstruction surgery include:

  • the implant hardens and changes shape
  • fluid leaks from the implant
  • unequal-sized breasts due to changes in your weight
  • the implant needs to be replaced
Sometimes, after breast implant surgery, a tough (fibrous) capsule can form around the implant. The materials that implants are made from are safe, but the implant itself is still a foreign object which your body may react to adversely.
It's also possible for the capsule to shrink over the course of several years and put pressure on the implant. This occurs in around 16% of cases, making the breast hard and painful. If this happens, you may need to have the implant removed.
The risk of implants leaking is fairly low because the liquid inside them is quite thick. A leak will usually only occur if you have a serious injury to your breast. Minor knocks to your breast or travelling in a plane won't cause a problem. In the unlikely event that a leak does occur, the lymph glands under your arms may swell up.
If you lose or gain weight after having breast reconstruction, the size of your breasts may appear uneven. It is not always possible for surgeons to get a perfect match with a breast reconstruction, but they may be able to make them more even by carrying out further surgery. Alternatively, they could put in a larger or smaller implant.
It is possible that your breast implant may need to be replaced at some stage. It is not known exactly how long modern breast implants last. However, it is estimated that they should last at least 10 to 15 years, although they may last longer.
Read more about the possible complications following breast implant surgery.

Skin grafts

After having a skin graft, you may experience bleeding or the skin graft may become infected. Contact your GP or healthcare team if your skin graft is painful, red or swollen (inflamed). If you smoke, your risk of developing problems with your skin graft is increased.
Following a skin graft, you will have scars, both at the site of the skin graft and at the area from where the skin was taken (the donor site). However, over time, these will gradually fade. Using a moisturiser (emollient) may help keep the skin around the scars soft and supple.
There's likely to be a difference in the colour of your grafted skin and the skin that surrounds the graft. If you feel uncomfortable about this, special camouflage make-up is available to help minimise the differences in skin colour.

Katie Piper

Cindy Jackson

VIDEO: After many plastic surgeries, women's quest for the fountain of youth continues.

Erik Sprague

Michelle Heaton

My views...

Plastic/cosmetic surgery can be used for health reasons and to improve the condition of lives
A lot of the time people simply have plastic surgery to improve their appearance
In some unique cases people have it to dehumanise themselves